In recent weeks, an alarming situation has erupted in several areas of Gilgit Baltistan, particularly in the Ghizer district. Suicide is a very serious and common problem across the world. It is also becoming a serious issue in Gupis valley District Ghizer. In the past few years, the number of suicides is increasing despite the measures taken to decrease its number. The root cause of these serious issues needs to address in collaboration with the government and social institutions. One of the core reasons which we can consider is the incompatibility of living standards and the emerging modernism. Our new generation is getting stuck between the cultural norm and the modern society and its imaginations, which become difficult to balance. People of this area have seen the level of modernism in a magical way which is becoming difficult to absorb. Many people including us think that the reason for suicide can be, difficulties in studying, love affairs, and dishonor of parents, but in reality, suicide is the ultimate step that is triggered after facing many untold stories. In this society, many parents do not give attention to the difficulties of their children these parents are not investing time in their children. The inexpressible frustration of the children remains inside their minds which aggravates them to take steps like suicide.
Another important issue in our society is the stigma attached to mental health. Because of the stigma associated with mental health, most people are unaware of the importance of discussing it. Half of our problems will be solved if we can overcome this stigma. Let’s break this stigma and talk about people’s mental health and help a person fight it.
If a person around you is frequently talking or thinking about death, if he is talking about wanting to die or wanting to kill himself, if he is talking about feeling trapped or that there are no solutions, if he is talking about being a burden to others, if he is giving away important possessions, then talk to him and help him.
Gilgit-Baltistan is a mountainous area which is located in the Northern area of Pakistan. The population of Gilgit-Baltistan is 1.8 million. Gilgit-Baltistan consists of 10 districts, and this research is conducted in district Ghizer. Mostly from Gilgit-Baltistan, the suicidal issues occurred in this area. Ghizer District is the northwestern part of the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Its capital is. According to Pamir Times (from 1996 to 2016 300 people committed suicide in Ghizer). Where Burushal Times reported that from 1995 more than 260peoples committed suicide in district Ghizer. According to Pass Times from 2005 to 2015 there are, 369 children committed are not satisfied with their life and use different tools to attempt suicide, like hanging, gun shooting, rivers, poisoning, and other devices were used to end their life. From 2000 to 2004 49 women committed suicide due to different factors in district Ghizer.
According to a police record of the Gupis district from Solvinged, only 20 suicide cases are reported to the police. But the local council of Keyword sorted 34 suicide cases from 2006 to 2018. In these cases, nine were those including four males and five females attempted suicide with a gun by shooting themselves. In ten instances, three males and seven females used neck traps for suicide by dangling from any higher position. One male and eight females attempted suicide by jumping into the river. In six cases of females, they used poison for ending their life. The foremost reason behind suicide was love affairs parents avoid reporting suicide cases because they are afraid of losing their reputation and honor in the community.
Perception means the perception of individuals regarding something or someone. “Khudkoshi ek haram cheez ak hin acha Islam aai mutabiq khudkoshi haram hin.” Suicide is defined as a bad thing taking, and according to the Islamic perspective, suicide is forbidden. According to respondents, different individuals, families, and societies have a different opinions about suicide. Sometimes these perceptions are different from each other, overall according to the Islamic perceptive majority of males, some females describe suicide as a bad thing. They explain their statement regarding Islamic teaching that in Islam, suicide is forbidden. Allah Almighty never forgives those who attempt suicide.
According to the majority of males, suicide is a psychological illness. Suicide has many reasons; those reasons have their roots connected to different issues, which are economic, behavioral, and social. Suicide is not a solution to any problem. As human beings, we have different needs. Human beings are social animals. They directly or indirectly rely on each other. In this world, many misunderstandings occur. Many problems come into human life. The best option is to use our brains and find the solutions they quoted. “Chadar dakh kay pawoon phalana chahy.” Expenses and demands of a person should be according to the community and family status. Going beyond the limitations causes damage.
According to the majority of females, they have the same beliefs as males regarding suicide. Suicide is forbidden in Islam. Suicide is not the last option. They said suicide means killing yourself by yourself. It’s a painful thing. When an individual comes to this stage, it means he/she is in a phase of pain, for relief from pain; someone attempts suicide.
”Zillat qisaysnsaysi say izzat qi mout behtar ha” Some female respondents said suicide is a good thing. They believe daily suffering from domestic problems, and social anxieties lead to suicide. They believe ”Death is better than living with indignity”.
According to medical staff, there are some ethical issues in providing accurate information about suicide cases. People don’t want to unveil these things. They fear their respect while discussing the suicides. This sentence reminds me of a famous quote by Hannah Wright,” death is natural. To live is the most painful thing I could imagine. I am weak and no longer willing to fight”.
Reasons Leading to Suicide
Regarding Female Education and Rights.
According to the majority of respondents, they have a positive response toward female education. “Masheray ma larka aur larki dono KO taleem deni chaia ya unka bnyadi haq ha.” In society, both girls and boys both have equal rights in access to education. Some respondents give education, but they do not alloy their females to get jobs out of the city. They acquire knowledge, but still, they have no job opportunities. “Jiski waja say zehni dabao ka shikar hotay hain” Sometimes they feel psychological pressure from parents as they compare them with other more brilliant students which creates an inferiority complex in students. Parents always torture the basis of grades and financial expenses if they fail. In response, they attempt suicide.
In the current study, most participants, consider male dominancy in Gupis. According to male and female respondents “Hamaray mashray ma aj bhi larkun KO ziada ehmiyat t aur our izaat detay hain, nuke muqbalay mai larkiun ko itni izaat nahi detay hain, In Gupis, women are given fewer opportunities when there is a preference decision to make between males and females. Girls are suppressed, and boys are given more attention and respect in decision-making and other opportunities. This dilemma leads to pathology among women. It also influences child mental, social, and psychological development. Further, it causes mental problems and leads to suicidal thoughts. Our society believes in Islamic perspectives. Still, our community contrasts this notion and discriminates in every aspect of life, e.g., distribution of property, decision-making authority, the choice for a life partner, freedom to live and speak, job opportunities, and educational opportunities. In all these domains, males are usually preferred.
According to male participants, male dominancy exists in Gupis Valley. “Pooray gar ko chlanay qi zimedari sirf mard qi hoti ha isy liye mardon ko ziada izzat datay hain.” Male members of the family are responsible for financial support and every household responsibility in this way they get much attention and importance in society as compared to females, Mostly males are empowered in decision-making in the situation. Females are allowed partially because the community believes women are less in intellectual abilities. Society believes that males are influential and supportive figures of the family; they happily fulfill their basic needs.
Some male respondents believe these days; that some families also support their females equally. They believe the ladies are also compatible in every aspect, especially in education, child nurturing, and caring. They are firmly attached to the family a lot of issues created due to male dominancy like gender discrimination, women empowerment, etc. Women feel helpless and hopeless and attempt suicide.
Some respondents mentioned gender discrimination is not an issue for a qualified person. Maybe both genders are treated equally. Girls are more creative and hardworking than boys. People with a sick mentality create problems for themselves and others in the community.
No Right participate pate
According to the majority of respondents, Gupis is male dominant society. All decision-making is done by parents, especially by the father or grandfather. Most parents are uneducated and have an aggressive parenting style. They ignore their offspring’s choices. Females mostly suffer from this; for example, mostly suicide reason is the rigidness of parents toward love marriages. They prefer their choice rather than their daughter’s choice. This leads to domestic violence on daughters; in response, some of them attempt suicide. Also, failure in love causes suicide among males.
The technological revolution is a massive change in this era. People from all places directly or indirectly suffer from it. They not only accept it but also make themselves dependent on technology Gupis Valley is also one of the victims of technological development. It caused much disturbance in Gupis valley. Mostly the victims are adults, boys, and girls. . “Hamaray idar dish TV aur cabel nai longun ko bht kharab Kya ha. Abi chtotay bachoun kay pass bhi touch mobile hotay hain uski waja say WO haar qisaam ki galat cheezain dakh Ka khrab hotay hain. Technology has surpassed our community that today there is no reality in character. Youth want to adopt a new fashion and lifestyle which is against the community values. They watch movies and get involved in illegal activities. Many respondents blame technological change as the main reason behind suicide. They explain the mobile phone is essential for the new generation, but they don’t know how to use it. Most boys use their cellphone to wastage of time and entertainment. The cell is a root to creating fake relations with girls; after knowing their secrets, boys blackmail them. Because of this, mostly girls attempt suicide.
Lack of perception of self.
According to young respondents, the majority of family patterns in Gupis are collective. Individuals become dependent on family mostly on adult males of the family. When they face a problem, they feel helpless. They lack self-perception, and self-view about their life. In response, they become unable to meet any problematic situation. Youth also suffer from decision-making because of belief in the collective family system, giving importance to it. They have no awareness of self which creates suffering in their life.
Nature and Nurture Effect.
The majority of respondents mentioned that parenting has a significant effect on suicidal thoughts. “Maa baap qi tarbiat hyy khudkushi ka zariya banti ha, maa baap bachon ko shuru ma bht azaadi datay hain”. Youth misuses the resources and freedom given by their parents because of no check and balance, either male or female. They join the wrong peer groups making them drug-addicted and Alcohol use.
When parents come to know such conditions, they strict them; in response, children become unable to cope with such strictness and move toward suicide.
Another measure reason, according to respondents, is over-strictness by parents. Children avoid discussing any issue with parents due to their strictness their stresses, problems, and other problematic things lead them toward suicide.
Some respondents added that strictness or too much freedom does not cause suicidal thoughts. It depends upon the individuals how they react toward the situation. No parents want bad for children. They do everything for the well-being of their children.
Most, suicides occur due to irrelevant and illogical thoughts and illogical desires which are unacceptable in society when a person attempts suicide. According to respondents, individuals reject and avoid the realities.
Local Belief Patterns on Black Magic and Its Effects Lead towards Suicide.
Gupis Valley is a rural community, and most people have strong beliefs in myths, and super-beings; they also have a strong and unchangeable understanding of black magic. Most respondents believe that “Har musibat aur takleef ka haal sirf daam taweez hi hai. The solution for every good and bad situation is Amulets and black magic and treatment by Shamans. According to some female respondents, one of the leading causes of suicide is black magic. They believe that if someone attempts suicide, the main reason is some evil people. They spell black magic on them, and their sense stops working. They became psychologically disturbed, and on small issues, they hang themselves or attempt suicide.
Different Ideological Barriers.
In Ghizer, most people are Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims, and some others include Sunni Muslims. Ismaili community due to their large population and community development are more dominant in Ghizer. The ideological beliefs and daily routines of life are different between Ismaili and Sunnis. Ismaili community members are open-minded; they encourage both genders equally in every walk of life. Sunni community case is different; they only prefer to promote their male members due to strict religious beliefs. According to Participants, these practices cause the whole society to misbalance. Which increases suicidal rates day by day?
According to the respondents, the Gupis valley in the past was very backward in education. In a few years, a rapid increase in Schools and Colleges changed the scenario. Most respondents think that “Is dorr ma paray likhay Kuchr our sochtay hain our unpard qi such Kuch our hoti ha, jersey mashray ma aisy mashablei masail paida hotay hain.” Nowadays, most people are getting g education, but a large population is still uneducated. Which has created two groups in the society, the Educated, and the Uneducated? Both groups want their dominancy and belief in their ideas to be correct. The differences in opinions between them create sectarian crises for businessmen. It creates barriers between parents and children when this thing becomes worse. It results in suicidal cases.
Another issue is the generation gap between the offspring and parents. Most parents in Gupis valley are uneducated Today youth is living and getting an education in different institutions outside their hometown. It allows them to interact and meet with diverse people and helps to understand diversity. This change makes it difficult for both the parents and the children to understand each other on their own, especially for the uneducated parents.
Difference between honor killing and suicide.
Honor killing is murder or harming a person or a social group, believing that the victim has brought dishonor to the other group. Harm or death of the person is seen as a way to restore the reputation and honor of a specific group or family. Suicide is an act of causing death to own life. This occurs due to the different types of psychological disorders.
The majority of male and female respondents explained that
“Ziadatar generate ka Naamam par honay walay qatal ko log Police case say bachnay liye khudkushi k Naamam data hain. Is ma yahan qi Local Police bhi uunke sat detailti ha”.
Mostly honor killing cases are named as suicide to avoid any Police case; as being locals, the police also support them by thinking it to be a personal problem.