[author image=”http://hunzanews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Dr-Sadia.jpg” ]Saadia Khan A paediatric resident at the Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Multan, she has a keen interest in preventative paediatric medicine and community work, and tweets as@drkhanchc (twitter.com/drkhanchc).[/author]
Pakistan is the one of the 10 countries with highest prevalence of diabetes. Diabetic’s number is increasing day by day in Pakistan now even children and teenagers are at a risk. There are approximately 7.1 million diabetics patients in Pakistan and number is alarmingly increasing day- by – day, it is estimated that diabetic’s population will be 11.4 million by the year 2030.
Diabetes mellitus occurs due to deficiency or absence of insulin hormone that is responsible for conversion of complex starch to glucose that is the fuel to run human body. Increase in thirst, urinary output, appetite, weight gain or sudden weight loss are early symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
Obesity, lack of exercise, junk food trends, smoking, alcohol and family history of diabetes are risk factors for emerging epidemic diabetes.
Steps to lower risk of Diabetes.
Exercise and weight gain control.
1-over weight increases the risk of diabetes to 7% and if obesity is there it increases to 20-40% than general population. Prolong sweaty exercises are not necessary, simple exercise and walk are even very effective.
2- Food selection is the tool to minimize the risk of diabetes.
Selection of FOOD.
1-Carbohydrates affect the blood sugar levels more than fats and proteins so have to select properly. Limit highly refined breads,rice,fizzy drinks soda, junk food and go for complex high fiber starch like whole grain, bran bread, brown rice, sweet potatoes, bran flakes, peas green leafy vegetables as they have low glycemic index. Add whole grain as they are rich in vitamins, fibres, and minerals and decreases the risk of diabetes while white bread and rice have high glycemic index so avoid them. Avoid soft drinks and soda especially diet beverages. Eat alot from non- starchy vegetables –beans andfruits.Apples, pears, peaches, berries, banana, mangoes, papaya have low glycemic index.
2-Select low fats, vegetable oils (olive oil) ,nuts, (almonds and walnuts) seeds, poultry, fish, and eggs as a good source of fats. Use low fat dairy.
3-High protein diets especially of animal origin can cause insulin resistance take protein in the form of beans fish and chicken avoid red meat. Instead of frying go for boiling, bar –b-q and steaming.
4-Use fresh juices only 1 glass a day; prefer to use fruit as a whole.
5-Avoid canned foods, artificial sauces.
6-Take small frequent meals 3 major meals with two snack especially. Don’t skip meals especially breakfast.
7-Use Ice creams and desserts as occasional treat or while celebrating cheat day. There is no need to avoid sugar at all, use in limited amount and should not be part of all meals taken. Use homemade peanut butter, homemade fruity yogurt, raisins, dates, fruit lollies and smoothies for sweet craving. Add fat to dessert as it will slow down the digestion and control glycemic index .Sujji ka halwa, gajrella, kheer with nuts and raisins are good option for sweet tooth. Dark chocolate is good option for chocolate lovers.
8-Proportion & amount of food taken is very important. Take starch fats sweet in limited amount and take veggies, proteins especially plant origin, fruits along with this in good amount.
9-Limit salt intake for healthy living and hydrate yourself with at least 8 glass water a day.
10-Say no to smoke and alcohol.
Urbanization, sedentary life styles. Love for junk food is contributors for emerging threats and epidemic of diabetes.
Care should be given for diabetics and national policy for prevention of diabetes is the need of time.So it should be made on urgent basis and screening should be done free of cost at government hospitals for prevention of diabetes as it is easy and inexpensive tool.
Key message is healthy life styles, good activity and good eating habits can prevent diabetes and can help diabetes for the control of their glucose control.